Currently showing posts tagged: cloud

Report from the OpenStack PTG in Dublin

By , March 9, 2018 7:30 pm

Last week I attended OpenStack’s PTG (Project Teams Gathering) in Dublin. This event happens every 6 months in a different city, and is a fantastic opportunity for OpenStack developers and upstream contributors to get together and turbo-charge the next phase of collaboration.

I wrote a private report for my SUSE colleagues summarising my experience, but then Colleen posted her report publicly, which made me realise that it would be far more in keeping with OpenStack’s Four Opens to publish mine online. So here it is!

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Abstraction As A Service

By , December 19, 2017 7:55 pm

The birth of abstraction layers

The last five decades of computing have seen a gradual progression of architectural abstraction layers. Around 50 years ago, IBM mainframes gained virtualization capabilities. Despite explosive progress in the sophistication of hardware following Moore’s Law, there wasn’t too much further innovation in abstraction layers in server computing until well after the dawn of the microcomputer era, in the early 2000s, when virtualization suddenly became all the rage again. (I heard a rumour that this was due to certain IBM patents expiring, but maybe that’s an urban myth.) Different types of hypervisors emerged, including early forms of containers.

Then we started to realise that a hypervisor wasn’t enough, and we needed a whole management layer to keep control of the new “VM sprawl” problem which had arisen. A whole bunch of solutions appeared, including the concept of “cloud”, but many were proprietary, and so after a few years OpenStack came along to the rescue!

The cloud era

But then we realised that managing OpenStack itself was a pain, and someone had the idea that rather than building a separate management layer for managing OpenStack, we could just use OpenStack to manage itself! And so OpenStack on OpenStack, or Triple-O as it’s now known, was born.

Within and alongside OpenStack, several other new exciting trends emerged: Software-Defined Networking (SDN), Software-Defined Storage (e.g. Ceph), etc. So the umbrella term Software-Defined Infrastructure was coined to refer to this group of abstraction layers.

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Announcing OpenStack’s Self-healing SIG

By , November 24, 2017 4:15 pm

One of the biggest promises of the cloud vision was the idea that all infrastructure could be managed in a policy-driven fashion, reacting to failures and other events by automatically healing and optimising services.

In OpenStack, most of the components required to implement such an architecture already exist, and are nicely scoped, for the most part without too much overlap:

However, there is not yet a clear strategy within the community for how these should all tie together. (The OPNFV community is arguably further ahead in this respect, but hopefully some of their work could be applied outside NFV-specific environments.)

Designing a new SIG

To address this, I organised an unofficial kick-off meeting at the PTG in Denver, at which it became clear that there was sufficient interest in this idea from many of the above projects in order to create a new “Self-healing” SIG. However, there were still open questions:

  1. What exactly should be the scope of the SIG? Should it be for developers and operators, or also end users?
  2. What should the name be? Is “self-healing” good enough, or should it also include, say, non-failure scenarios like optimization?

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Cloud rearrangement for fun and profit

By , May 17, 2015 4:42 am

In a populated compute cloud, there are several scenarios in which it’s beneficial to be able to rearrange VM guest instances into a different placement across the hypervisor hosts via migration (live or otherwise). These use cases typically fall into three categories:

  1. Rebalancing – spread the VMs evenly across as many physical VM host machines as possible (conceptually similar to vSphere DRS). Example use cases:
  2. Consolidation – condense VMs onto fewer physical VM host machines (conceptually similar to vSphere DPM). Typically involves some degree of defragmentation. Example use cases:
  3. Evacuation – free up physical servers:

Whilst one-shot manual or semi-automatic rearrangement can bring immediate benefits, the biggest wins often come when continual rearrangement is automated. The approaches can also be combined, e.g. first evacuate and/or consolidate, then rebalance on the remaining physical servers.

Other custom rearrangements may be required according to other IT- or business-driven policies, e.g. only rearrange VM instances relating to a specific workload, in order to increase locality of reference, reduce latency, respect availability zones, or facilitate other out-of-band workflows or policies (such as data privacy or other legalities).

In the rest of this post I will expand this topic in the context of OpenStack, talk about the computer science behind it, propose a possible way forward, and offer a working prototype in Python.

If you’re in Vancouver for the OpenStack summit which starts this Monday and you find this post interesting, ping me for a face-to-face chat!

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OpenStack Paris workshop: Automated Deployment of an HA Cloud

By , November 1, 2014 7:39 pm

6 months after its debut in Atlanta, the HA workshop happening again in Paris, this Monday (16:20, Room 241)! If you plan on attending and didn’t already see Florian’s blog post, please get downloading and installing the prerequisite files quick, because downloading them over hotel or conference wifi is likely to be painful. (N.B. Unless you have a really strong reason not to, please go with the VirtualBox option, because there are more pitfalls when using KVM+libvirt.)

However if you’re already on the way to Paris, don’t despair, because we’ll also do our best to make the files available at the SUSE booth. And failing that, you can still just turn up, enjoy the show, and then try the hands-on exercise any time later at your own leisure!

In case you have no idea what I’m talking about, here’s some brief history:

Back before the last OpenStack summit in Atlanta in May, I managed to persuade Florian Haas to join me in an endeavour which some might view as slightly insane: run a 90 minute hands-on workshop in which we’d have every attendee build a Highly Available OpenStack cloud on their laptop, from scratch.

With so many moving parts and a vast range of different hardware involved, it certainly wasn’t plain sailing, but by the power of Vagrant and VirtualBox, I think overall it was a success.

Since then, we’ve been working extremely hard to improve the workshop materials based on lessons learnt last time. So what’s new? Well, firstly the workshop environment has been upgraded from Havana Icehouse (SUSE Cloud 4 vs. version 3 in May), and quite a lot of polish has been applied, since in May the HA code was still relatively new.

Secondly, we’ve added support for building the cloud using KVM+libvirt (although VirtualBox is still recommended for a smoother ride).

Thirdly, the documentation is way more comprehensive, and should help you avoid many common pitfalls.

Hope to see you at the workshop, and please come and say hello to us at the SUSE booth!

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